The Paradox of Global Hunger

Written By: Nour Elkhawass

Despite our world producing enough food to feed 1.5 times the global population, a staggering 783 million people suffer from hunger, while 2.4 billion experience food insecurity. This paradox signifies the existence of systemic flaws within our global food systems. This article delves into the current state of global hunger and food insecurity, exploring its complex, interconnected causes, evaluating how the issue is being addressed today, and proposing potential solutions to help achieve “Zero Hunger”.


In a world that produces enough food to feed 1.5 times the global population (5), the reality that 783 million people suffer from hunger, while 2.4 billion experience food insecurity (7), presents a paradox in our current food systems. Food systems are inherently complex, involving a wide range of actors across various sectors, from smallholder farmers and consumers to governments and large corporations. This complexity is exacerbated through a web of interconnected factors such as climate change and political instability, which both impact and are impacted by food systems. A shock in any component can spread rapidly throughout the system, affecting millions of people. Global hunger and food insecurity are complex problems that require equally complex solutions. This article delves into the current state of global hunger and food insecurity, exploring its multifaceted causes, evaluating current approaches to address the problem, and proposing potential solutions and future directions.

Background and Context

Global food systems started with the advent of civilization, with animal domestication and increased crop and grain cultivation transitioning early humans from nomadic lifestyles to settled agricultural communities. The rise of city-states further propelled this evolution by creating a need for structured food governance to supply and distribute food to growing urban populations, leading to advances in food storage and transport. The Iron Age and the Roman Empire marked the start of global food systems, with regional specialization and expanding trade networks (13), while the Middle Ages brought trade enhancements through the merchant class and banknotes. The Industrial Revolution, and subsequent scientific and technological advancements, revolutionized food production and distribution, significantly increasing agricultural productivity (13). The 20th century introduced mechanization, selective breeding, and improvements in animal nutrition, further transforming agricultural productivity. Today, these systems are defined by complex supply chains, influenced by urbanization, globalization, consumer preferences, and technological innovation (13).

Since 1961, global food production has grown at a faster rate than the global population (See Figure 1), a trend that has continued despite the global population’s increase by another billion between 2011 and 2023 (16). The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that global agriculture produces enough food to provide every person on the planet with an adequate diet in terms of calories (5). Ideally, this should mean that every person in the world should have enough food to eat, but this is not the case. It can be deduced that global food scarcity is not the problem, because clearly, there is no global food shortage.

Hunger vs. Food Insecurity

Distinguishing hunger from food insecurity is crucial to understanding current global food challenges. Hunger is the uncomfortable sensation caused by the insufficient consumption of dietary energy needed for an active and healthy life due to the lack of funds, access to food, or other resources (6). It is measured by the Prevalence of Undernourishment (PoU) indicator, which focuses on chronic hunger trends, and the Number of Undernourishment (NoU) indicator, which focuses on the number of people who do not have access to enough calories. Food insecurity is the lack of regular access to sufficient food, and the uncertainty about the ability to obtain food, which leads to compromises in the quality and quantity of food consumed. It can be moderate or severe and is measured by the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), which is based on individuals’ direct experiences with food (6).

The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC) identifies acute food insecurity levels in crises through a five-phase classification system: 1) Minimal, 2) Stressed, 3) Crisis, 4) Emergency, and 5) Catastrophe/Famine. The IPC pinpoints immediate critical situations that threaten lives due to inadequate dietary energy intake or the depletion of resources essential for obtaining food (15).

Together, these tools provide a comprehensive view of global hunger and food insecurity,  offering essential data for formulating targeted policies and interventions aimed at eradicating hunger and improving food security on a global scale.


Current State

In 2022, an estimated 691 to 783 million people faced hunger (See Figure 2), representing 8.7 to 9.8% of the global population (9). The regions most affected were Sub-Saharan Africa, with 22.5% of its population experiencing hunger, Central and Southern Asia at 15.2%, and Western Asia and Northern Africa at 9.2% (7). Notably, less than 2.5% of the population in Eastern Asia, South-Eastern Asia, Northern America, and Europe faced hunger, highlighting significant disparities in hunger across different regions.

Moreover, approximately 29.6% of the global population – 2.4 billion people, were moderately or severely food insecure in 2022 (See Figure 3). The 2023 State of Food Insecurity and Nutrition in the World (SOFI) report highlights a global landscape still recovering from the global pandemic and facing the consequences of political conflict such as the war in Ukraine (7).

The FAO and the World Food Programme (WFP) have issued a warning that acute food insecurity is expected to worsen in 18 critical areas, covering a total of 22 countries/territories, and two regional groups, from November 2023 to April 2024. Burkina Faso, Mali, South Sudan, Sudan, and newly added Palestine are of the highest concern. These regions are on the brink of, or already encountering, extreme food scarcity, with significant portions of their populations facing dire conditions (4). The report highlights the exacerbation of these crises by ongoing armed conflicts and increased targeting of civilians leading to widespread displacement, particularly noted in the Gaza Strip and across the Sahel region.

The bombardment, ground operations, and besiegement carried out by Israel on the entire population have led to severe and widespread levels of food insecurity across the Gaza Strip (14). Approximately 85% of the population – 1.9 million people, have been displaced and find themselves in concentrated areas with inadequate shelter and restricted access to essential humanitarian aid (14). This report projected that from December 2023 to January 2024, 100% of the Palestinian population will fall into or exceed IPC Phase 3 (Crisis to Famine) conditions, with an alarming 26% (576,600 people) confronting famine (IPC Phase 5). This situation represents the highest share of people facing high levels of acute food insecurity ever recorded by the IPC initiative in any location worldwide.

The risk of food insecurity is higher among specific demographics, such as rural communities, women, and smallholder farmers. Apart from Northern America and Europe, rural regions worldwide exhibit higher levels of food insecurity compared to urban areas. In 2022, around 33.3% of adults in rural settings experienced food insecurity, compared to 28.8% in peri-urban and 26% in urban areas (1). Food insecurity also affects women more severely than men globally and in every region (1), especially those in rural areas which are often the backbone of smallholder farming. Women and rural communities face systemic challenges such as limited access to land, credit, and decision-making power, limiting their year-round access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food (12). Lastly, despite small-scale farmers contributing to one-third of global food production (20), they are among the world’s poorest, hindered by limited access to advanced technologies. This technological gap leads to low productivity and inefficiencies in production, translating into low revenue and reduced, restricting opportunities for growth. These farmers struggle to cover daily expenses and are trapped in a cycle of poverty (19).


Causes of Hunger and Global Food Insecurity  

Global food scarcity is not the cause of global hunger and food insecurity; the real issue lies in a complex network of interconnected factors that include but are not limited to challenges in agri-food distribution systems, the grip of poverty and inequality, the repercussions of economic shocks, the chaos brought by political instability, food loss and waste, and the effects of climate change. Each of these elements interacts with each other to compound and exacerbate the overall issue, creating widespread challenges.

Agrifood distribution systems: Agri-food distribution systems face challenges in ensuring that food reaches all populations equitably, with economic, infrastructural, and political issues often hindering access. Additionally, large-scale production and international trade are often prioritized, neglecting local food needs by prioritizing export crops, marginalizing small-scale farmers and communities, and creating dependency on a distribution network dominated by a few global corporations. This is worsened by export restrictions on essential staples like rice, disrupting global food supplies and affecting countries reliant on imports. This results in a system that, while producing enough food, fails to distribute it effectively (18, 25, 26).

Poverty and inequality: Poverty and inequality lie at the heart of global hunger and food insecurity, as they limit the poorest people’s ability to afford nutritious food, pushing them towards cheaper, less nutritious options, or leaving them without food entirely when prices fluctuate. This economic vulnerability is made worse by a global food system skewed towards wealthier markets, ignoring the accessibility of food for those living in poverty. Poverty restricts the ability of individuals and communities to invest in sustainable agricultural practices, or access technologies that could enhance food production and security locally (18, 25, 26).

Economic shocks and political conflict: Economic shocks such as financial crises, spikes in food and fuel prices, or disruptions in trade routes, directly affect the affordability and availability of food worldwide. These shocks can be triggered by events such as the war in Ukraine or the COVID-19 pandemic. The war in Ukraine disrupted global supply chains, particularly the supply of wheat, and increased the cost of essential agricultural inputs and food commodities, making it harder for people to afford the food they need. These impacts are long-lasting. For instance, global hunger and food insecurity remain higher today than at pre-pandemic levels, with 9.2% of the world experiencing hunger in 2022, compared with 7.9% in 2019, and 391 million more people today facing food insecurity than in 2019 (7). The FAO projects that about 600 million people will be chronically undernourished in 2030 (7). This is about 119 million more than in a scenario in which the pandemic and the war in Ukraine had not occurred (1).

Organized violence and armed conflict are major contributors to acute food insecurity in areas known as hunger hotspots, including Yemen and Palestine. In Yemen, nearly a decade of conflict has severely impacted the economy, eroded livelihoods, and caused mass displacement (4). Similarly, in Palestine, the cumulative effects of ongoing hostilities, Israel’s illegal occupation of Palestinian territories such as the West Bank, and their 15-year economic blockade of the Gaza Strip continue to restrict agricultural activities and access to resources, reducing national food production, increasing reliance on food imports, and significantly contributing to food insecurity and hunger in the region (11). These situations are indicative of how political instability and conflict can disrupt food systems, destroy infrastructure, and displace communities, severely limiting access to food and increasing the risk of famine. The World Food Programme (WFP) has reported that conflicts are a driving force behind acute food insecurity, affecting over 333 million people globally (23).

Food Loss and Food Waste: A shocking 30% of food produced globally for human consumption is lost or wasted every year (22). Food waste and food loss occur throughout the value chain, from production to consumption, in both developed and developing countries albeit at different stages of the value chain (See Figure 4). Food loss, which occurs primarily in the earlier stages of the value chain, leads to a reduction in food quantity or quality before consumption. In developing countries, 40% of losses occur at post-harvest and processing levels (22). Meanwhile, food waste occurs closer to consumption, where food fit for human consumption is deliberately discarded, contributing to the overall loss. In developed countries, 40% of losses happen at retail and consumer levels (22). Food waste and loss are caused by market dynamics, farmers’ production practices, socio-economic characteristics, and climate conditions (3). The volume of food that is produced but not consumed could nourish two billion individuals – more than double the number of undernourished people across the world (22).

Policy: Policy plays a critical role in shaping global hunger and food insecurity, spanning trade policies, agricultural policies, economic policies, social policies, environmental and climate policies, conflict resolution and peacebuilding policies. Policies can either mitigate or exacerbate global hunger and food insecurity as they impact both the availability and accessibility of food across different regions and populations. Trade policies, including trade restrictions, tariffs, and subsidies can distort food prices and availability, making it harder for importing countries to access affordable food. While international trade can offset regional food deficits and contribute to dietary diversity and price stability, it alone cannot resolve the broader socio-economic and political challenges affecting food security. Conversely, trade wars and protectionism, such as the one between the United States and China, can jeopardize global food security by impacting agricultural sectors in developing countries, which rely heavily on agriculture for employment, production, and exports (21).

Climate change: Climate extremes are a main driver of hunger in numerous countries, with projections showing that in a world just 2°C warmer, an additional 189 million people could face hunger, a number that could escalate to 1.8 billion with a 4°C temperature rise (24). Ironically, agriculture contributes to about one-third of all greenhouse gas emissions and is identified as a primary contributor to methane release (24). A detrimental feedback loop is observed, where agriculture contributes to climate change, and climate change, in turn, impacts agricultural productivity. Climate change disrupts agricultural productivity through extreme weather events, shifts in rainfall patterns, and increasing temperatures. These changes can exacerbate soil erosion, lead to water scarcity, and reduce biodiversity, all of which are crucial for sustainable agricultural practices. This environmental degradation disrupts food production, leads to crop failure, limits local food availability, drives up prices, and diminishes food safety, directly contributing to food insecurity (17). This dynamic is particularly devastating for the world’s poorest regions, which despite minimal contributions to global CO2 emissions, bear the brunt of climate change’s impacts (24).


Current Progress Towards Tackling Global Hunger and Food Insecurity

The global endeavour to achieve “Zero Hunger” by 2030, as outlined by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal 2 (SDG 2), is critically behind schedule. Despite concerted efforts from international bodies like the WFP, the World Bank Group, the FAO, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the journey towards eradicating hunger, ensuring food security, and promoting sustainable agriculture is far from realization.

Efforts towards achieving SDG 2 have been insufficient, with increasing global hunger increasing since 2015, and an increasing number of people suffering from food insecurity, especially among rural women. COVID-19, climate change and armed conflicts have reversed much of the progress achieved in the past decade.

While nominal government spending on agriculture has increased, the proportion of total government spending dedicated to agriculture declined between 2015 and 2021, indicating a decreased prioritization for agriculture (10). Disparities persist in income, land ownership, smallholder farmer productivity and gender rights in agriculture due to agriculture liberalization, increased corporate dominance, reduced public investment in agriculture, and the effects of climate change (10, 12).

Although major institutions like the World Bank and UN agencies acknowledge the importance of empowering women in rural areas, significant gaps remain in policy implementation, with the persistence of discriminatory laws and practices in many countries. Agricultural interventions frequently overlook women, exacerbating gender disparities in decision-making and workload. Tools like the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index aim to promote gender fairness, but the overall support for women’s rights organizations remains insufficient (12). Additionally, the lack of sex-disaggregated data in food security programs doesn’t allow for effective tracking of the initiatives directed at women farmers, (12).

Albeit limited, positive developments such as the decline in agricultural export subsidies and the decrease in the share of countries facing moderately to abnormally high food prices offer glimpses of progress towards resilience in food price stability and demonstrate potential areas of success (10).

In short, with only 8 years left, the world is not on track to achieve “Zero Hunger” by 2030.


Potential Solutions

Although factors like climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic are out of our control, focusing on the many factors we can control is crucial in building systems resilient enough to endure such unforeseen challenges. Our attempts to reach “Zero Hunger” by 2030 have not been successful, signalling the urgent need for systematic transformation. Drawing from extensive research and expert insights, here are 8 actionable solutions that hold promise for achieving” Zero Hunger” by 2030. These solutions go hand in hand and should be implemented collectively for effective impact.

1. Revolutionizing Global Governance and Collaboration

The global food crisis cannot be solved by any single participant, agency, or sector because of the complex nature of the agri-food system. The current fragmentation and lack of coordination among international bodies like the UN, G8, G20, World Bank, and IMF, compounded by strong influence from the private sector, dilute the effectiveness of initiatives (12). While the FAO has received increased authority, its recommendations for achieving “Zero Hunger” are not obligatory and are often overlooked. A new global governance model is essential, one that facilitates collaboration and alignment globally, nationally, and locally. This system should focus on tackling the root causes of the crisis, addressing its immediate effects, and implementing long-term preventative strategies. It must be execution-based and proactive/anticipatory by nature rather than reactive, with shared decision-making and a shared leadership approach that emphasizes systems thinking a holistic view, and a multifaceted approach (13). The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) Chair of Portuguese-speaking countries advocates for a solution that brings together entire governments and society, drawing contributions from all participants including smallholder farmers, family farmers, cooperatives, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), women, youth, Indigenous peoples, community groups, local authorities, and parliamentarians in a unified effort (5).

2. Strengthening Food System Resilience 

Risk is inevitable in complex systems like this one. Food systems can either contribute to the risks or be designed to tolerate them. In a fragile system where the disturbance of a single component can trigger a cascade of effects, leaving millions hungry and food insecure, proactive risk management is key. Agri-food systems need to transition towards greater resilience to ensure sustainable, safe, and nutritious food availability for all. Examples of this include mitigating climate risks by adopting proactive climate risk monitoring and implementing early warning systems (6). A shift away from growth-centric models to address climate change, ecological deterioration, and social inequities comprehensively is needed (18). Prioritizing sufficiency and regeneration in food systems, alongside educating the next generation of agrifood professionals, can lead to long-term resilience.

3. Reducing Food Loss and Waste

Cutting food loss and waste by half by 2030 is an SDG target that can be achieved through the implementation of targeted strategies which distinguish between food loss and food waste, and address them at different stages of the food value chain. Improving post-harvest handling and storage can reduce food loss in developing countries, while consumer education campaigns and distribution network optimization can tackle food waste in developed countries (3). Systematic research needs to be conducted to identify where in the food value chain interventions will be most effective, linking food loss reduction directly to the broader goals of eradicating hunger and addressing food access disparities. An example of a practical approach to reducing food loss and waste can be seen through the UK’s shift away from a zero-tolerance approach, where they employ more flexible “use by” labelling to encourage home-freezing. This demonstrates a practical move towards waste reduction without compromising food safety, challenging the conventional policies that have led to excessive food waste in supply chains like those in the US (13).

4. Empowering disproportionately impacted groups: smallholder farmers, women, and rural areas 

Empowering vulnerable groups, particularly smallholder farmers, women, and rural communities, is crucial for more equitable resource distribution. Increasing the productivity and income of smallholder farmers through funding, business acumen training, social protection, and increased access to technology, finance, and markets, should be a central focus (19). The training should enable them to pinpoint and address inefficiencies in their production processes (19). Policies and interventions designed to support these farmers are essential for not only improving their livelihoods but also for advancing global food security. Simultaneously, reducing gender inequalities involves supporting women’s economic roles, improving agrifood system productivity and connections within food supply chains, limiting increases in food prices and their excessive fluctuation, fostering employment opportunities, and broadening the scope of social protection measures (6).  To address the significant gaps in policy implementation that address inequalities effectively (12), strict measures and performance indicators must be put in place to monitor progress.

5. Enhancing the Data

Developing better data collection and analysis methods/technologies to track and analyze global hunger and food insecurity as well as monitor the progress of targeted interventions, will allow for a more accurate identification of hunger hotspots, better assessment of food system vulnerabilities, and the tailoring of interventions more effectively.  Collecting data from a representative sample of food system participants – including farmers, wholesalers, and processors – will improve our understanding of food loss and help support targeted reduction efforts globally (18). Standardized methods across all participants and stakeholders are also crucial. There is currently a lack of detailed gender-specific data which doesn’t allow effective assessment of how agricultural aid impacts women (12). Specific measures and tools need to be created to assess the effectiveness of gender-focused agricultural policies and actions.

 6. Policy Making

Effective policy-making requires a comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted nature of food systems, and global collaboration and alignment, to ensure that changes in one area don’t negatively impact others. Inclusive food policy councils, representing a broad spectrum of stakeholders, can help align diverse interests and expertise. Although states today prioritize food security, at the same time, they try to limit the Committee on World Food Security (CFS)’s political influence and multi-stakeholder process, prevent the institutionalization of the right to food, and pursue aggressive trade liberalization (12). A shift towards policies that target poverty and inequality, economic factors, climate change, and political conflict is necessary. For example, adopting policies directed at high-income and middle-income countries to reduce global warming has the potential to reduce poverty and hunger in low-income countries. Political conflict can be targeted through the integration of humanitarian development and peace-building policies that are linked to livelihood support and nutrition-sensitive social protection (6).

7. Incentivizing Innovation 

Entrepreneurship and innovation have the power to drive major changes in the world. Allocating more grants, funding, and investment to entrepreneurs, startups, and researchers focused on global hunger and food insecurity, its causes or effects, will incentivize them to come up with innovative solutions to current agri-food challenges. Innovative agricultural innovations such as precision farming and crop genetics hold the promise of making food production more efficient, resilient, and sustainable. This increased investment should be a collaborative effort from governments, the private sector, academia, and civil society to invest in, support, and scale innovations that can transform our food systems for the better.  Governments should aim to increase their proportion of spending in agriculture rather than reduce it as has been the case in recent years. New technologies seem promising, particularly quantum and AI’s combined ability to address complex problems that humans cannot solve. An example of a quantum computing use case that can be applied to this issue is finding the right materials to enable carbon capture, addressing more efficient fertilizers that don’t harm the earth through molecule simulation.

8. Providing Immediate Emergency Action to Crisis Hotspots

Targeted humanitarian action is urgently needed to save lives and prevent starvation in 18 hunger hotspots across the world, particularly Burkina Faso and Mali, Palestine, South Sudan and Sudan (4). The FAO & WFP Hunger Hotspots Report provides recommendations for each crisis hotspot, suggesting anticipatory and emergency responses. These recommendations are voluntary in nature, and in my opinion, need to be obligatory if we truly care about achieving Zero Hunger. Addressing the crisis in Gaza, the report recommends, involves ensuring unrestricted humanitarian access to deliver life-saving aid, such as food, water, and medical supplies, allowing regular and sustained food assistance to save lives and prevent widespread deaths, and the rapid restoration of basic services such as healthcare and water supply. These are basic human rights that are not being met, and ‘voluntary’ recommendations are not sufficient.



In a world that produces enough food to feed every individual, the existence of hunger and food insecurity indicates systemic failures in our food systems. An interconnected web of factors, from inefficient agrifood distribution systems to climate change, poverty, economic shocks, and socio-political disruptions leave millions hungry every year. Without making substantial changes in our current approach to addressing global hunger and food insecurity, we will not achieve “Zero Hunger” by 2030. Addressing global hunger and food insecurity requires global collaboration and collective execution, resilient food systems, food loss and waste reduction, the empowerment of marginalized groups, improved data collection, coherent policy creation and implementation, agricultural innovation, and the delivery of immediate aid to areas in crisis. On an individual level, contributing to reputable charities, minimizing food waste, becoming educated on the issue and educating those around you can make a difference. Looking forward, the only certainty we have about the world is that we cannot predict it. For this reason, making our agrifood systems proactive and resilient is key, which will be a collaborative effort.


Works Cited

  1. “2.1 Food Security Indicators – Latest Updates and Progress towards Ending Hunger and Ensuring Food Security.” Accessed March 10, 2024.
  2. Action Against Hunger. “What Is Hunger?” Action Against Hunger, January 3, 2024.
  3. Delgado, Luciana, Monica Schuster, and Maximo Torero. “Food Losses in Agrifood Systems: What We Know.” Annual Review of Resource Economics 15, no. 1 (October 5, 2023): 41–62.
  4. FAO and WFP. “Hunger Hotspots: FAO-WFP Early Warnings on Acute Food Insecurity, November 2023 to April 2024 Outlook.”, October 31, 2023.
  5. FAO, CFS. “Keynote Address by CFS Chair to the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries .” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, October 19, 2022.
  6. FAO. “Hunger and Food Insecurity.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed March 10, 2024.
  7. FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO. The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2023, July 12, 2023.
  8. FAO. In Brief to The State of Food and Agriculture 2023. Revealing the true cost of food to transform agrifood systems, November 6, 2023.
  9. FAO. “Putting a Number on Hunger.” Accessed March 10, 2024.
  10. FAO. “Tracking Progress on Food and Agriculture-Related SDG Indicators 2023.” Accessed March 10, 2024.
  11. FSIN, and Global Network Against Food Crises. “Global Report on Food Crises – 2022.” Accessed March 10, 2024.
  12. “Gender Inequalities and Food Insecurity: Ten Years after the Food Price Crisis, Why Are Women Farmers Still Food-Insecure? – World.” ReliefWeb, July 15, 2019.
  13. Hueston , Will, and Anni McLeod. “Overview of the Global Food System: Changes Over Time/Space and Lessons for Future Food Safety.” Chapter A5. In: Institute of Medicine (US). Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary. National Academies Press (US), 2012. Available from:
  14. IPC. “Gaza Strip: Acute Food Insecurity Situation for 24 November – 7 December 2023 and Projection for 8 December 2023 – 7 February 2024 : IPC – Integrated Food Security Phase Classification.”, December 21, 2023.
  15. IPC. “IPC Acute Food Insecurity Classification.” IPCINFO Website. Accessed March 10, 2024.
  16. Lam, David. “Has the World Survived the Population Bomb? A 10-Year Update.” Population and Environment 45, No. 2 (May 30, 2023).
  17. Mbow, C., Rosenzweig L.G., and T.G Barioni. “Food Security.” Essay. In Climate Change and Land: An IPCC Special Report on Climate Change, Desertification, Land Degradation, Sustainable Land Management, Food Security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems, 2019.
  18. McGreevy, S.R., Rupprecht, C.D.D., Niles, D. et al. Sustainable agrifood systems for a post-growth world. Nat Sustain 5, 1011–1017 (2022).
  19. Olarewaju, Babatunde. “Smallholder Farmers – Are They Really Poor?”, March 18, 2023.,thus%20affect%20their%20livelihood%20adversely.
  20. Ritchie, Hannah. “Smallholders Produce One-Third of the World’s Food, Less than Half of What Many Headlines Claim.”, February 22, 2024.
  21. UNCTAD. “Trade Wars Are Huge Threats to Food Security.” UNCTAD, January 22, 2020.
  22. WFP. “5 Facts about Food Waste and Hunger: World Food Programme.” UN World Food Programme, June 2, 2020.
  23. WFP. “A Global Food Crisis: World Food Programme.” UN World Food Programme. Accessed March 10, 2024.
  24. World Bank Group. “Climate Explainer: Food Security and Climate Change.” World Bank, October 19, 2022.
  25. World Bank Group. “Food Security: Rising Food Insecurity.” World Bank, March 4, 2024.
  26. World Bank Group. “Recognizing and Tackling a Global Food Crisis.” World Bank, January 5, 2023.


1 Comment on "The Paradox of Global Hunger"

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *